Toxicology

All of our webinars, reports, podcast episodes, and other educational resources are available to the public at no cost.

Funding for the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence has been provided by the National Institute of Justice.

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White Paper – Forensic Community Drug Database Conceptualization

Date February 2024 Overview The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)-in partnership with its Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) at RTI International and the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-convened a virtual Medicolegal Death…

Technical Note – The Use of Neutral Losses and Common Fragments Screening by QTOF in Forensic Laboratories

Date February 2024 Overview Quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry is an advanced analytical technique that has some capabilities that make it particularly useful in screening in toxicology cases for unknown analytes. The technology combines the power of a quadrupole mass…

Foundational Statistics for Forensic Toxicology Webinar Series

Overview In the field of Forensic Toxicology, numerical data and statistics abound, appearing in quantitative analyses, quality control, measurement uncertainty, proficiency testing, method validation, experimental design, peer-reviewed journal articles, business analytics, and more. Foundational statistical knowledge is critical to understanding…

Drug Surveillance Initiatives: An FTCOE Repository of Resources

Date December 2023 Overview In the realm of drug surveillance, a multitude of data sources originate from diverse funding agencies, including but not limited to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Centers for Disease Control…

2024 NIJ Forensic Science R&D Symposium

Overview The Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) assisted the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) in hosting the annual NIJ Forensic Science Research and Development (R&D) Symposium on Tuesday, February 20, 2024 at the 76th Annual American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) conference in Denver, Colorado. This…

White Paper – Information Sharing Between Medicolegal Death Investigators and Toxicology Testing Services

Date December 2023 Overview The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)-in partnership with its Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) at RTI International and the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-convened a virtual Medicolegal Death…

What FSSP Leaders Should Know about Artificial Intelligence and its Application to Forensic Science In-Brief

Date December 2023 Overview Artificial intelligence (AI), which leverages computers to perform tasks that enhance decision-making, problem-solving capabilities, and technology-driven innovativeness,” is a rapidly growing area of interest for both industry and the federal research and development (R&D) community.1 For forensic science service…

Implementation Workshop: TOF/QTOF Mass Spectrometry for Identification, Screening, and Confirmation in Forensic Toxicology and Chemistry

Overview This event originally occurred on October 18, 2023 Duration 5.5 hours This virtual workshop aims to provide guidance to forensic science service providers (FSSPs) involved in the planning, purchase, use, or quality assurance surrounding TOF/QTOF-MS instrumentation. The speakers for…

FLN-TWG: A Roadmap to Improve Research and Technology Transition in Forensic Science

← Back to FLN-TWG Main Page  Forensic Laboratory Needs Technology Working Group (FLN-TWG) The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in partnership with the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) at RTI International, formed the Forensic Laboratory Needs Technology Working Group…

2023 National Forensic Science Week Interview Montage

← Back to Main Page Overview In the past, the FTCOE has released written interviews with forensic practitioners in various stages of their career and working in various forensic disciplines. This year, we created a video comprised of multiple interviews with forensic practitioners from seasoned subject matter experts to young professionals early…

2023 National Forensic Science Week

Overview National Forensic Science Week (September 18-22, 2023) recognizes the contribution that forensic science makes to the criminal justice system. It is an opportunity to celebrate academic programs, forensic professionals, and scientific research in the various forensic disciplines.   Throughout the…

Cannabinoid Pharmacology: Three Decades of Controlled Human Cannabinoid Administration Studies

← Back to Webinar Series Page This webinar originally occurred on August 1, 2023 Duration: 1 hour Overview Important research findings of three decades of controlled human cannabinoid administration studies conducted at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National…

Vaping in the Weeds: The Merging of the E-cigarette and Cannabis Industries

← Back to Webinar Series Page This webinar originally occurred on June 29, 2023 Duration: 1 hour Overview The modern e-cigarette was developed for the vaping of nicotine. The nicotine e-cigarette device and associated e-liquids were federally unregulated until 2016.…

Development of Analytical Methods for Measuring Δ9-THC in Cannabis Products

← Back to Webinar Series Page This webinar originally occurred on Tuesday, June 27, 2023Duration: 1 hour Overview With the passage of the 2018 Agricultural Improvement Act (Farm Bill), forensic laboratories have been tasked with differentiating seized cannabis samples as…

All Is Not Pot That’s Green: An Overview of THC Isomers

← Back to Webinar Series Page This webinar originally occurred on June 15, 2023Duration: 1 hour Overview THC isomers, also known as THC analogs or semi-synthetic cannabinoids, are a group of compounds structurally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) that are often…

Criminal Justice and Public Health Response for Emerging Drug Threats

Overview In a joint effort with the Bureau of Justice Assistance’s (BJA) Comprehensive Opioid, Stimulant, and Substance Use Program (COSSUP), FTCOE develops capabilities that meet the needs of forensic science organizations to improve collaborations across the criminal justice and public…

Research Clues to Appreciating a New Era of Cannabinoid Conundrums Webinar Series

Overview Use and abuse of various cannabinoids has seen significant growth over the past several years due to the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018, also known as the Farm Bill. Proliferation of new cannabinoid products derived from cannabidiol has resulted…

Investigation & Certification of Drug Toxicity Death Training

Overview Continuing Education Credits Available 3.75 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™ 0.4 IACET Continuing Education Units 3.75 ABMDI Continuing Education Credits The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) engaged the CDC’s federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) –…

The Sentinel Role of Forensic Toxicology Laboratories to Identify and Act Upon Diverse Drug Threats by Addressing Toxicology and Economic Demands

Publication Forensic Science International: Synergy, September, 2022 Authors Jeri D. Ropero Miller | RTI International Lawrance D. Mullen | RTI International Paul J. Speaker | West Virginia University Introduction The societal costs from substance abuse are extensive and include treatment…

2022 National Forensic Science Week FTCOE Student Research Poster Session

← Back to Main Page Overview Thursday, September 22, 2022 | Posters will be available at 1:00 PM Eastern Welcome to our virtual poster session! As fall semester begins and in honor of National Forensic Science Week (September 18-24, 2022),…

Medicolegal Death Investigation Partnerships on Overdose Fatality Reviews

Date July 2022 Overview The main purpose of Overdose Fatality Reviews (OFRs) is to review overdose fatalities and find gaps in services to help save lives. They rely on a multi-agency approach to information sharing to accomplish this goal. Upon…

Project ECHO: Applications for the Medicolegal Death Investigation Community and Other Forensic Disciplines

Date October 2022 Overview Similar to the foundational ECHO model designed for primary care providers, ECHO: Overdose Fatality Investigation Techniques (OD-FIT) is designed to promote the rapid dissemination of medicolegal death investigation-specific knowledge for immediate application to overdose casework.1 The ECHO…

Currently Applied Naming Conventions for Various Subclassifications of Novel Psychoactive Substances

Date May 2022 Overview The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in partnership with its Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) at RTI International and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, convened a virtual Medicolegal Death Investigation Data Exchange Working…
drugs & woman

Reports of Adverse Events Associated with Use of Novel Psychoactive Substances, 2017–2020: A Review

Publication Journal of Analytical Toxicology, April 2022 Authors Amanda L A Mohr | Center for Forensic Science Research and Education Barry K Logan | Center for Forensic Science Research and Education Melissa F Fogarty | Center for Forensic Science Research…

Medical Examiner and Coroner Outsourcing Study – A Qualitative Study and Cost-Benefit Analysis

Date January 2022 Overview Medical examiners and coroners (MECs) are often at the center of highly stressful and emotional situations as a part of their daily job duties. Those events are compounded by continued and escalating high caseloads and inadequate…
test tube & molecules

Use of Rapid Toxicology Screening Tools in Medical Examiner/Coroner Offices

Date November 2021 Overview All medical examiner/coroner (ME/C) offices must make difficult decisions when allocating resources for timely, complete medicolegal death investigations. In some cases, toxicological analysis of a decedent’s biological specimens (e.g., blood, urine, tissue) can help determine cause…
US and forensic science disciplines

2021 Forensic Science Research Federal Stakeholders Public Meeting

Overview The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in partnership with the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE), held a Forensic Science Research Federal Stakeholders meeting on November 8, 2021 from 9:00AM…
certificate of death and drugs

Death Certification by the Medical Examiner/Coroner in Drug-Related Deaths

← Back to MDI Webinar Series This webinar originally occurred on November 30, 2021 Duration: 1 hour Overview Considering the steadily rising number of overdose deaths in recent years, public health systems rely on the vital role of medicolegal death…

Sam Quinones | International Award-Winning Author – The Least of Us: True Tales of America and Hope in the Time of Fentanyl and Meth

This webinar originally occurred on October 28, 2021 Duration: 1 hour Overview Sam Quinones is a Los Angeles-based freelance journalist and an international award-winning author of four books of narrative nonfiction. Quinones’ latest book, The Least of Us: True Tales…
question marks and silhouettes

2021 National Forensic Science Week Practitioner Interviews

← Back to Main Page Overview The FTCOE has conducted a variety of written interviews with forensic professionals in various stages of their careers. From recent graduates to retired professionals, the FTCOE showcases real-world perspectives on the current state of…

2021 National Forensic Science Week FTCOE Student Research Poster Session

← Back to Main Page Overview  As fall semesters are getting back into session and in honor of the upcoming National Forensic Science Week (September 19-25, 2021), the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) would like to highlight student research…
type writer with stack of papers

Multiple Perspectives on Overdose Fatality Reviews

This webinar originally occurred on July 27, 2021 Duration: 1 hour Overview This webinar provided an overview of overdose fatality reviews (OFRs) with a specific focus on engaging partnerships with coroners, medical examiners, and medicolegal death investigators.  The presenters highlighted…
hand touching hexagons

Working Group on Data Exchange in Medicolegal Death Investigation

Working Group on Data Exchange in Medicolegal Death Investigation The National Institute of Justice and its Forensic Technology Center of Excellence convene the Working Group on Data Exchange in Medicolegal Death Investigation in collaboration with and supported by the Centers…
A hand holding drug paraphernalia

Novel Psychoactive Substance Naming Conventions & Challenges

This webinar originally occurred on July 22, 2021 Duration: 1 hour Overview Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) present many challenges for the forensic scientist, including the various ways that they are named and how those names are used – both scientifically…
microphone and headphones

Just a Guide to Sexual Assault Response Reform

Original Release Date: April 30, 2021 In episode three of our 2021 Sexual Assault Awareness Month mini season, Just Science sat down with Dr. Patricia Melton, co-director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance’s National Sexual Assault Kit Initiative Training and Technical Assistance program, to…
microphone and headphones

Just Polysubstance Use and the Importance of Data Trends

Original Release Date: March 26, 2021 In episode ten of the 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season, Just Science interviews Josh Yohannan, a forensic chemist and expert in emerging drug trends, about polysubstance use in the opioid overdose epidemic.  Polysubstance use dramatically increases the potential for overdose…
microphone and headphones

Just Addressing the Stigma of Substance Abuse Disorder

Original Release Date: March 19, 2021 In episode nine of the 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season, Just Science interviews Clarence Jordan, the Vice President of Wellness and Recovery at Beacon Health Options, to discuss stigma and its impact to programs designed to support those…
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Just the DEA National Forensic Laboratory Information System

Original Release Date: March 12, 2021 In episode eight of the 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season, Just Science interviews DeMia Pressley from the DEA’s Diversion Control Division to discuss the importance of information sharing across law enforcement and public health agencies through…
microphone and headphones

Just Building Policy From The Ground Up

Original Release Date: March 5, 2021 In episode seven of the 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season, Just Science interviews Dr. Alex Kral, an infectious disease epidemiologist at RTI International, about innovative policy solutions to improve outcomes for people with substance use disorder.  Community-based research takes place…
scientist

FLN-TWG: LC-MS-Based Forensic Toxicology Screening

← Back to FLN-TWG Main Page  Forensic Laboratory Needs Technology Working Group (FLN-TWG) The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in partnership with the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) at RTI International, formed the Forensic Laboratory Needs Technology Working Group…
constellations over glass lab equipment

Forensic Laboratory Needs Technology Working Group (FLN-TWG)

Supporting NIJ’s Mission to Improve Knowledge and Understanding The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in partnership with the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) at RTI International, formed the Forensic Laboratory Needs Technology Working Group (FLN-TWG). The FLN-TWG supports NIJ’s…
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Just Alternative Crisis Response: One Community’s Experience

Original Release Date: February 26, 2021 In episode six of the 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season, Just Science interviews Tim Black of the White Bird Clinic in Eugene, Oregon about the CAHOOTS program, a community-based public safety model that provides…
A series of lightbulbs with the center bulb illuminated.

The ROI from Reducing Turnaround Time for Processing DUI: Drug Cases

Date February 2021 Overview From the opioid crisis to legalization of marijuana to the continuing evolution in the abuse of drugs, the societal costs from substance abuse is extensive. This includes societal costs from treatment, healthcare, lost productivity, death, and…
microphone and headphones

Just Partnerships To Enhance Overdose Fatality Review

Original Release Date: February 19, 2021 In episode five of the 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season, Just Science interviews Dr. Mallory O’Brien, Assistant Professor at the Medical College of Wisconsin, to discuss how partnerships can enhance Overdose Fatality Reviews.  The National Violent Death…
microphone and headphones

Just the Story of the Healthy Grandfamilies Project

Original Release Date: February 12, 2021 In episode four of the 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season, Just Science sat down with Bonnie Dunn, Co-Director of the West Virginia Healthy Grandfamilies Project, to discuss a free initiative that provides information and resources to grandparents who…
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Just The Importance of Identifying Emerging Drug Threats

Original Release Date: February 5, 2021 In episode three of the 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season, Just Science sat down with Amanda Mohr and Dr. Alex Krotulski from the Center for Forensic Science Research and Education to discuss the analytical and interpretative challenges associated with emerging…
Chemical symbols over plants

Structural Characterization of Emerging Synthetic Drugs by Mass Spectrometry

This webinar originally occurred on March 5, 2021 Duration: 1 hour Overview The main focus of this webinar is on the use of isotope labeling, multi-stage mass spectrometry (MSn), ion spectroscopy, and accurate mass measurements with high resolution mass spectrometry…
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Just the Intersection of Opioids and Illicit Stimulants Part 2

Original Release Date: January 29, 2021 This week, in episode two of our 2021 Illicit Substance Use Response season Just Science continues the conversation with Dr. Jon Zibbell as he discusses the American history of drug epidemics, what we can learn from past stimulant crises, and the…

Preemptive Approach to Combatting and Characterizing Emerging Synthetic Opioids

This webinar originally occurred on February 8, 2021 Duration: 1 hour Overview This webinar described how preemptive synthesis and characterization of potent psychoactive substances from the literature can aid forensic scientists in the identification of unknowns appearing in samples emerging…
Drug paraphernalia

Novel Synthetic Opioids in Oral Fluid: Analytical Methods and Prevalence

This webinar originally occurred on February 11, 2021 Duration: 1 hour Overview Opioid use has risen dramatically, creating public safety concerns. Synthetic opioids can be hundreds of times more potent than heroin and can produce severe intoxications and even fatalities…

The hidden costs of the opioid crisis and the implications for financial management in the public sector

Publication Forensic Science International: Synergy, September 2019 Authors Jeri D. Ropero-Miller | RTI International Paul J. Speaker | John Chambers College of Business & Economics Abstract The November 2017 release of the Council of Economic Advisers’ White House report on…
A clean laboratory full of glass equipment

ASCLD Train the Director – Toxicology: Instrumentation, Methodology, and Workflows

← Back to Series This webinar originally occurred on February 6, 2020 Duration: 1.5 hours Overview Legacy workflows in toxicology generally involve a drug class screen followed by a gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC/MS-MS) confirmation…

2019 National Institute of Justice Forensic Science Research and Development Symposium

Date February 2019 Overview The 2019 National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Forensic Science Research and Development (R&D) Symposium is intended to promote collaboration and enhance knowledge transfer of NIJ-funded research. The NIJ Forensic Science R&D Program funds both basic or…
Custom graphics with the words Global Monitoring/ Substance Identification, Trend Analysis, Toxicology Portal, Risk Communication, Prioritization for International Action, and National Legislative Responses

UNODC Early Warning Alert System: Forensic Tools for New Psychoactive Substances

← Back to Series  This webinar originally occurred on December 3, 2019 Duration: 1 hour Overview The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Early Warning Advisory (EWA) on new psychoactive substances (NPS) was launched in June 2013 as…
a field of red flowers

Forensic Epidemiology: Monitoring Fatal Drug Overdose Trends

← Back to Series  This webinar originally occurred on February 11, 2020 Duration: 1 hour Overview Given the vital role of medical examiners and coroners (ME/C) in recognizing emerging trends in drug overdose deaths, partnering epidemiologists with ME/C offices can…
chemical compounds behind glass tube

Best Practices in Novel Psychoactive Substances Testing for Laboratory Practitioners

Date September 2019 Overview New psychoactive substances (NPS) have always presented a challenge to analytical laboratories tasked with identifying drugs in biological and nonbiological material. The pace at which new compounds appeared on the illicit drug market increased exponentially in…
scientist examining chemical compounds

Improving National Laboratory Capability and Capacity to Measure Human Exposure to Synthetic Opioids

← Back to Series  This webinar originally occurred on September 3, 2019  Duration: 1 hour Overview The CDC laboratory at the National Center for Environmental Health is collaborating with public, private, and academic laboratories to respond to the opioid overdose…
chemical compounds

Opioids & Emerging Drug Threats – Integrating Public Safety and Health Data for a Forensic Response Webinar Series

Overview Building on the momentum of the National Opioid and Emerging Drug Threats Policy and Practice Forum held earlier this year in Washington, D.C., the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) will assist the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) in…
Decorative banner mimicking the appearance of concrete with Forensic Technology Center of Excellence fingerprint logo

The Opioid Epidemic: An Update from the Coroner/ME Perspective

This webinar originally occurred on July 24, 2019Duration: 50 minutes Overview Between 2016 and 2017, overdose deaths increased from 63,632 to 70,237. Of these, 47,600 overdose deaths involved opioids. In 2017, West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and the District of…
hands pouring baggie of white powder onto a surface under green light

Understanding the Impact of Drug Background Levels in Forensic Laboratories

← Back to Series  This webinar originally occurred on August 13, 2019 Duration: 2 hours Overview As drugs become increasingly potent and analytical instrumentation becomes more sensitive, the need to understand and monitor drug background levels is becoming imperative.  Background…

In-Brief Report Series: Beyond DNA – Sexual Assault Investigations

Date January 2019 Overview The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is committed in their efforts to support scientific advancement, evidence-based practices, and community awareness of our Nation’s sexual assault response. As NIJ’s Director, Dr. David B. Muhlhausen, indicated, “our nation’s…

Novel Forensic Chemistry Research from Early-Career Scientists

This webinar originally occurred on September 19, 2018 Duration: 1.5 hours Overview National Forensic Science Week recognizes the contribution that forensic science makes to the criminal justice system. Throughout the week, the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE) will be…

Webinar: Identifying Seized Drugs using Mass Spectral Library Searching

This webinar originally occurred on August 7th, 2018 Duration: 1 hour Overview The rapid spread of designer drugs has introduced significant identification challenges to the forensic science community. This webinar discusses how Mass Spectrometry and the “Hybrid Search” can be…

Three Part Online Workshop Series: Best Practices Guidance for Advancing Research Initiatives and Combatting the Synthetic Drug Epidemic

Overview The Center for Forensic Science Research and Education (CFSRE) is a world-leading center in novel drug identification and interpretation. The CFSRE is working in association with NIJ’s Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE), led by RTI International, to deliver…

Conference Proceedings: 2018 Research and Development Symposium

Date April 2018 Overview The 2018 National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Forensic Science Research and Development (R&D) Symposium is intended to promote collaboration and enhance knowledge transfer of NIJ-funded research. The NIJ Forensic Science R&D Program funds both basic or…

Regional Fentanyl Trends, Safety & Field Testing Technology

← Back to Series  Overview Regional fentanyl trends in Phoenix and Pittsburgh will be discussed along with safety concerns with unknown white powders. Handheld field testing technology will also be discussed including RAMAN and IMS. This webinar will discuss trends…

The NC Statewide Medical Examiner System Laboratory Approach

← Back to Series  Overview This webinar will focus on the North Carolina Medical Examiner System and the toxicology laboratory that serves the system. Included will be information on the changing landscape of death certification and changes to the laboratory…

The Industry’s Role in Responding to the Opioid Crisis

← Back to Series  Overview This webinar will describe the role that the reference material manufacturer plays by providing the tools needed to respond to the current opioid epidemic. Whether by rapidly providing authentic reference standards of novel emerging drugs…

Making The Case For Prevention: Fighting The Opioid Epidemic

← Back to Series  Overview This webinar focuses on universal and primary prevention efforts to address prescription drug misuse and abuse; and the use of innovative analytic techniques to evaluate their effectiveness. The current response to the opioid epidemic has…

Opioids and Death Investigation: A “Perfect Storm”

← Back to Series  Overview The scope of the opioid epidemic presents unprecedented challenges to the medical examiner and coroner community. This webinar will explore the intersection of the opioid epidemic with the work of America’s medical examiners and coroners.…

Dreamland – Sam Quinones Explores America’s Opiate Epidemic

← Back to Series  Overview Sam Quinones is a Los Angeles-based freelance journalist and author of three books of narrative nonfiction. His latest book is Dreamland: The True Tale of America’s Opiate Epidemic (Bloomsbury, 2015), for which he traveled across…

Fentalogs – Pharmacology, Toxicology & Analytical Approaches

← Back to Series  Overview We will review the chemistry of fentanyl, its analogs and precursors, their pharmacology and relative potency, and approaches to identifying novel fentanyl analogs in forensic toxicology casework. Fentanyl and its analogs, sometimes called “The Fentalogs”,…

Identify Synthetic Opioids using Ambient Ionization TOF-MS

← Back to Series  Overview This webinar will present the results of the evaluation of Direct Sample Analysis Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to provide rapid identification of eighteen fentanyl analogs and related synthetic opioid. As of March 2016, the Drug Enforcement…

Reports of Adverse Events Associated with Use of Novel Psychoactive Substances, 2013–2016: A Review

Date April 2017 Overview Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) represent significant analytical and interpretive challenges to forensic and clinical toxicologists. Timely access to case reports and reports of adverse incidents of impairment or toxicity is imperative to clinical diagnosis and treatment,…

2016 National Institute of Justice Forensic Science Research and Development Symposium

Date July 2016 Overview The 2016 NIJ Research and Development Symposium is intended to promote collaboration and enhance knowledge transfer of NIJ-funded research. The NIJ Research and Development (R&D) Program funds both basic or applied R&D projects that will (1)…

A Landscape Study of Mobile Evidential Breath Alcohol Instruments

Date December 2016 Overview This report provides a landscape of select mobile evidential breath alcohol instruments and factors impacting their implementation and use. Specifically, this report provides decision-makers and potential end users with the following: 1) an overview of the technology…